Introduction to Veterinary Science
Livestock plays a significant role in the Indian economy. The livestock sector is functioning well in the manner of production, value addition and export of dairy, fishery, wool, meat, poultry and other products. Except for nutritional security, the livestock sector stretches its arms in terms of year-round labour and revenue generation to the landless, marginal and small farmers.
The livestock sector’s success depends not only on the farmers but also on the services of veterinary human power. Veterinarians have versatile roles, ranging from facilitating breeding in the form of artificial fertilisation, to health care and imparting extension services.
The development of livestock population and veterinary personnel should be at par as any disproportion in the same would significantly affect livestock production and thus lead to serious effects like nutritional diffidence, joblessness and poverty. Hence, the career scope of veterinary science is enormous and ever-growing.
Scope of Veterinary Science
Veterinary medicine is the department of medicine that deals with the prevention, control, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, diseases and injuries in animals. Simultaneously, it deals with animal farming, husbandry, breeding, and research on nutrition and products. Both veterinary science and veterinary medicine engage in working with animals and coming up with solutions to animal health problems and complications.
A veterinary medicine profession focuses more on animal care and protection, while veterinary science careers tend to concentrate more on research and instruction. Veterinary science address the treatment and welfare of all animals. The research and study of veterinary science range from precautionary care to psychological analysis and complex surgical problems.
Besides caring for animal health, a veterinarian’s job also comprises scientific breeding and management of livestock as well as birds, performing surgery vaccinating animals and birds against diseases and controlling zoonotic (diseases spread from animals to human) diseases. And instruct the clients who are the owners of the animal about public health and hygiene, and doing research on animals for the benefit of society.
A veterinarian may also operate in the area of wildlife conservation. Veterinary Science has grown to a different level with progress in Animal Stem Cell Engineering, Concepts of Aquatic Biotechnology. Animal Biochemistry, Biotechnology, Animal Cloning and Transgenic Animals and more.
Job Roles of Veterinary Doctors
A veterinarian can select to target a specific species or group of animals, large animals like horses, cows, and sheep, or small animals like cats and dogs or wild animals or even different kinds of insects. Some veterinarians work for the government to train and encourage livestock farmers to establish the quality of their animal stock, supervise vaccination and medicines or artificial insemination and handle the control and eradication of any notifiable disease in all kinds of animals
Wildlife conservation, poultry management and health care, livestock insurance, and rural development are also other fields of specialization for veterinary doctors. They also work for pharmaceutical companies to create new medical treatments for animals, and in the holistic field, offer unconventional and complementary medicine for animals.
Opportunities and possibilities for Veterinary Doctors
One can either work at established clinics under superior doctors or set up a private practice centre for animals and birds. You can also get into research, education, or work with diagnostic laboratories. Various NGOs also employ veterinarians for consultation and discussion about various projects regarding animal and bird welfare. Generally in India career opportunities for veterinarians can be grouped as per employment agencies
- State government
- Centralised sectors
- Local bodies/municipalities/ panchayats
- Private sector
- Self-employment in private practice
Animal Husbandry Departments of State Governments:
Different state governments hire veterinary graduates for the position of veterinary officers / veterinary surgeons. These recruitments are made through the respective State Public Service Commissions exams. The basic qualification required for the posts is a Graduate degree in veterinary science. The veterinarians in the state departments have to watch over animal health, animal reproduction, veterinary and animal husbandry enlargement, meat inspection and cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, and poultry production, breeding farms, etc. Some of the veterinary graduates are involved in the disease diagnostic laboratories of the State Government, while a few are enrolled in the biological production units. The several experimental programs of government organisations are also taken care of by these veterinary officers.
Various dairy federations are involved in the production and procurement of milk and milk products through cooperative societies. These federations also work for the upliftment of dairy animals. They deliver animal health care, veterinary extension, and animal reproduction facilities to livestock farmers. To facilitate the service to farmers they employ a large number of veterinary graduates. The job is quite challenging and demanding.
Bank and Insurance Companies:
The majority of the Public sector banks and insurance companies also hire veterinary graduates to administer and watch the milch animals which are bought from the sanctioning/ awarding of various loan schemes to the farmers. The services of veterinarians are also used for the preparation of various project proposals.
A significant number of Indian and multinational pharmaceutical enterprises have entered into the manufacture of veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals. They recruit veterinary graduates for the quality control and marketing of drugs and vaccines. The job is quite challenging, demanding, and requires expertise.
Remount Veterinary Corps (RVC):
Remount Veterinary Corps of the Indian Army branch gives a very lucrative career to hopeful and devoted veterinary graduates who are interested in a disciplined and busy life. Veterinary graduates can be selected for short service commissions or permanent commissions. The recruitment is done through the Service Selection Board. The job of RVC requires breeding, feeding, management, disease control, and treatment of all types of animals like dogs, and horses maintained by the army, managing breeding centres, remount depots, slaughterhouses, military dairy farms, etc.
Paramilitary Forces like Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), Border Security Force (BSF) and other paramilitary forces hire veterinary graduates to manage dog and horse breeding centres and provide animal health and inspection.
Various disease investigation centres offer prompt diagnostic facilities. Such laboratories also recruit veterinarians to tackle disease diagnostic work.
Zoo and National Parks:
The zoo and national parks get veterinary support through respective animal husbandry departments. But some National park and zoo recruit their veterinary officers to provide health care to the animals. The job is very adventurous and rewarding for those who love wildlife.
Teaching and Research Organisations:
Veterinary graduates who have taken higher qualifications like M.VSC and PhD are recruited by various academic and research institutes of different state universities and institutes. They undertake teaching, research, and extension work in organisations like ICAR.
Research and Development
Most pharmaceutical and other organisations have research and development departments for carrying out trials or evolving protocols for clinical trials. They also hire a few veterinary graduates. Although, they prefer the Master/Ph.D. degree holders in their respective specialisations to undertake the challenging task.
Some of the top Recruiters in Veterinary Science in India:
• CRPF paramedical department
. Central and State Government
Career path of becoming a Veterinary Doctor
If you are interested in making a career in the Veterinary, then you will first need to complete your Bachelor’s degree in Veterinary Science (B. VSC), which takes about 5 years to complete. To take admission to this course, you will need to qualify for the NEET (National Eligibility Cum Entrance Test) after your class 12th, which will measure your knowledge of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. After completing graduation in veterinary science you will be able to practice in the field of veterinary. One must get registered with the State Veterinary Council. The license can be acquired only after the completion of an internship under the council for 6 months.
To pursue a Master’s degree in Veterinary Science, the candidate needs to have finished their Bachelor of Veterinary Science (BVSC) from – a recognised university and should have secured a minimum of 50% in their graduation.
Alternative fields of study in veterinary science include environmental science, biotechnology, forestry and wildlife science, forensic science, microbiology, marine sciences, oceanography, and so on. If you are curious about working with animals, you could also do a BSc in Zoology followed by courses in Wildlife Protection or Zoological Studies for a job with a zoological park or in wildlife protection organisations.
The Project Tiger in India, the World Wildlife Fund, and other wildlife protection organisations hire zoologists, veterinarians, and other experts for conservation programs and to study ways and means of preserving wildlife in the country.
To be successful, veterinarians need to have a wide range of physical and mental skills, practical skills such as performing surgery on animals, and interpersonal skills such as showing empathy to clients and animals. You also need to be a problem solver attitude because many situations arise in this field where candidates have to solve many problematic situations.
The veterinarians should have an excellent understanding of biological & zoological science and research and a long-term dedication to work. They should be well aware of new scientific research and developments. They have to attend conferences in their areas of specialization.
They must be aware of new drugs and techniques and should be in touch with representatives who provide new types of medical equipment and supplies.
Colleges/Institutes of Veterinary Science:
A career in Veterinary Science is very adventurous and those who love animals, birds and wildlife are worth it for life. This field gives you an opportunity to work closely with nature. A good veterinarian will always be busy with various projects. Many international organisations also hire veterinarians for their projects in the field of wildlife and the conservation projects of various species. An enthusiastic veterinarian can also get the opportunity to work with The National Geography, Discovery and Animal Planet.
In this era where many governments and international organisations come forward to save and conserve wildlife, a career in veterinary science is blooming. We, therefore, suggest all the students who are thinking of making and shaping a career should also look for the career in Veterinary Science.
The MBBS and Veterinary Science are different branches of Medical Science. MBBS doctors have to treat humans where Veterinary Doctors will have to work with different animals and birds.
Treat Animals and Birds is more challenging as they can’t speak. The better option from MBBS and Veterinary Science depends on your affection and attachment. If you love working with animals then Veterinary Science is definitely for you and this career will reward you in future.
If a veterinary doctor is working under state government or central government then their starting salary would be near about 60K per month which will be going to increase per year as per incremental norms of government.
If Veterinary Doctors get a chance to work with international organisations then their income would be in lakhs per month.
Even if Veterinary Doctor starts their own clinics they can earn a good amount of money as there is an increasing trend of keeping pets.
Why not? Veterinary Science is good for all those who have empathy toward animals and birds. If you have watched wildlife documentaries, you will observe many young girls working in this field.
We would like to request you to read this blog about Famous Veterinarians who inspire Animal Lovers.